Cryptic Memo

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Ancient civilizations left behind astonishing ruins that have captivated the human imagination for millenniums. Many experts can talk ably about one ancient civilization, but what happened in other parts of the ancient world? While it is impossible to cover the whole ancient world, we will survey six great civilizations. Four of these six are of the Old World: Mesopotamia, ancient Egypt, the Harappan civilization of the Indus Valley (in what is today northwest India and Pakistan), and ancient China. The last two, Mesoamerica and South America, are of the New World.

By acquiring a basic knowledge of their fundamental characteristics and the remarkable innovations they contributed to the modern world’s cultural heritage. We will also consider reasons for their flourishing and decline, looking both at the archaeological record and current scholarly thought. The monuments of the pharaohs may seem permanent and unchanging, but each generation of archaeologists, visitors, and mystics recreates a new life for temples, statues, and pyramids. Ancient Greece was the birthplace of democracy, the fountainhead of philosophy, and the home of a beloved mythology of gods and heroes. From its origins in the Bronze Age civilization of Mycenaean Greece down to the Roman conquest, ancient Greece tantalizes us with its architecture, its myths, and its accomplishments.

The Near East has long been a source of fascination because of its ancient cultures and its connection to the foundations of Western civilization, from the origins of civilization at Sumer to its influence on the development of the Jewish and Christian faiths and on ancient Greece and Rome. When archaeologists began exploring the ruins of the Near East in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, they often came with the intent of proving the Bible’s historical accuracy. A vast number of ancient cultures inhabited North and South America between the end of the last ice age and the coming of the Europeans. For centuries, European and American scholars tried to discredit Native accomplishments by assigning their monuments, myths, and art to peoples ranging from the Phoenicians to the Israelites to the Vikings, or even to the devil.

With all the Information and ruins we have a lot to learn from the past to make our future brighter and learn for the mistakes of our ancestors.